Using Git

Frequently used Git commands

Git runs entirely on your workstation, and a copy of the entire repository is also on your local hard drive. GitHub, BitBucket, and other providers only give you a storage space to allow you to share your repository with others and provide a web user interface to manage it. You can use any provider’s application on your workstation to manage any of your Git repositories. Many developers use SourceTree, the great application written by Atlassian, the owner of BitBucket, to manage Git repositories on their workstations that are shared at GitHub.

Here are the most frequently used Git commands.

Create the local repository

Initialize a new Git repository in the current directory. This command creates the .git sub-directory to store your repository and its configuration file.

git init

Display the local repository status

Display the list of added, deleted and modified files in the local repository

git status

Display your changes in the files

Display the changes in files since the last git add

git diff

Display the changes in the local stage area after you have executed  git add

git diff --staged

Stage your changes in the local repository

Add your changes to the local stage area

git add .

Save the changes to the repository

Commit your changes from the local stage area to the local repository with a message

git commit -m "My message"

Edit the last commit message

You can edit the last commit message even after the push.

git commit --amend

When you execute git status you get the message

Your branch and ‘origin/master’ have diverged,
and have 1 and 1 different commits each, respectively.
(use “git pull” to merge the remote branch into yours)
nothing to commit, working tree clean

To synchronize your local repository with the remote, execute

git pull

The merge window pops up. You can leave the default message, or type your explanation. To save your message and close the window

  1. Press the ESC key on your keyboard
  2. Press the keys (including the colon at the beginning) :wq

Push your changes to the remote

git push

Send your changes to the remote repository

Push the changes to the remote repository at GitHub, Bitbucket, or others

git push

Get the latest from the remote repository

Pull the latest changes from the remote repository

git pull

Advanced topics

Push an existing repository from the command line

git remote add origin https://github.com/ORGANIZATION/REPOSITORY_NAME.git
git push -u origin master

Branching

Forks and Pull Requests

 

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