Flying spacecraft in Kerbal Space Program


TToggle SRS on and off
FTemporarily toggle SRS

Time Warp

  • Press the period (.) key to speed up time, and press the comma (,) to slow down
  • Click the Time Warp indicator to change the Warp speed
  • Click the orbit and select Warp Here to time warp to that point

Flight information

In the Map view

Apoapsis and Periapsis

Hover above the “Ap” (Apoapsis) and “Pe” (Periapsis) icons to view the changing numbers, and right-click them to keep the numbers displayed.

Flight control

The NavBall

The NavBall symbols

Manual flight control

As we rotated the craft 90 degrees in the VAB, use the up (W) and down (S) keys to turn East.

Automatic attitude control

To enable automatic flight control after launch

  • Turn on SRS with “T” and
  • Click the Target icon

Automatic maneuver orientation

To automatically rotate the spacecraft to the maneuver marker

  • Turn on SRS with “T” and
  • Click the Maneuver icon

Note: You still have to initiate the burn, this is just for automatic spacecraft orinetation.

Automatic prograde orientation

To speed up the spacecraft keep it aligned prograde during the burn

  • Turn on SRS with “T” and
  • Click the Prograde icon

Automatic retrograde orientation

To slow down the spacecraft, keep it aligned retrograde during the burn

  • Turn on SRS with “T” and
  • Click the Retrograde icon

Changing orbit

Going to orbit

Once we reached apoapsis during launch, rotate the spacecraft to the prograde marker and initiate a burn to set the periapsis above the surface.

Changing Apoapsis and Periapsis elevations

To change the elevation of the Apoapsis and Periapsis burn at the opposite point.

  • To raise the Periapsis, at the Apoapsis turn prograde and start a burn.
  • To lower the Periapsis, at the Apoapsis turn retrograde and start a burn.

Return from orbit

To return from orbit lower the Periapsis to 20,000 m. The atmosphere will slow down the spacecraft preventing it to reach Apoapsis again.

  • At the Apoapsis turn retrograde and continue to burn until the Periapsis lowers to 20,000 m.

Maneuver nodes

We can set up maneuvers ahead of time and the spacecraft will execute them at the correct time with the correct burn length.

Create a maneuver node

  • Click the orbit and select Add Maneuver to place a maneuver node

Set up the maneuver

  • Pull the handles to plan to change the speed of the spacecraft into that direction. Watch the orbit to make sure you reach your desired destination. The farther you pull the handle the faster the orbit changes. Release the handle to stop the orbit change.
  • Watch the Apoapsis and Periapsis display to see the result of the burn

Delay and delete the maneuver

  • First click the maneuver node to show the handles
  • Righr click the inner circle to switch to the other view
  • Click the red X to delete the node, the lus and minus icons to increment and decrement the orbit counter to delay the execution of the maneuver.

Execute the maneuver

  • Click the dashed planned orbit line and select Warp to Next Maneuver to move the time to 90 seconds before the maneuver
  • Rotate the spacecraft to align it with the blue cross on the NavBall
  • Split the burn duration around the node time, so start the burn before it’s time by half of its duration. Start a one minute burn at T minus 30 seconds.
  • If the burn is very short, less than a few seconds, execute the burn with low throttle for better control.

Stop the burn at the correct moment

To make sure you cut off the engine at the right moment, watch the resulting Periapsis or Apoapsis number, do not entirely rely on the calculated burn time.

  • Right-click the blue Periapsis or Apoapsis icon you are interested in to keep the number displayed,
  • During the burn watch the number changing and stop the burn when it reaches the planned amount.

Close the maneuver

If you have already reached the correct orbit and the maneuver is no longer needed

  • Click the red X or green check mark to delete the maneuver

Warp to a location

To warp to a location on the orbit

  • Click the point on the solid orbit line where you want to warp to and select Warp Here

To warp to the next maneuver

  • Click anywhere on the dashed planned orbit and select Warp to Next Maneuver

    OR if the solid and dashed lines overlap
  • Click the Warp to Next Maneuver button on the ORBIT display in the lower-left corner of the screen

  • Click the Next Maneuver button on the ORBIT display to go to the next maneuver
  • Click the Warp to Next Maneuver button on the MANEUVER display

Spacecraft building in Kerbal Space Program


Stage 0 is for the parachute, the largest number is for the boosters.

Spacecraft alignment

Rotate the pod 90 degrees with “E” to face east, so steering can be done with the up and down controls.

Flight abort

To safely abort a flight assign actions to the Abort action group. When you click the abort handle next to the altimeter or press the Backspace key the action group items will be executed. To open the parachute, press the space bar multiple times to advance through the staging sequence.

  • Select Action to create an Action Group
  • Select the Abort action group
  • Click the coupler under the pod
  • Add the Decouple action to the group
  • Select all liquid engines
  • And add their Shutdown Engine actions to the group
  • Select the engine of the upper stage in the fairing and add the Shutdown Engine action to the group

  • Select the radial decouplers of the solid rocket boosters. If were placed with symmetry, it is enough to select one of them.
  • Add the Decouple action to the group

Challah with raisins


  • 18 oz. (500 g) all-purpose flour
  • 3.5 oz. (100 g) bread flour if you use yeast
  • 6.3 oz. (180 g) sourdough starter, or 1 packet (0.25 oz., 7 g) active dry yeast, or 0.9 oz. (25 g) fresh yeast
  • 1 tsp sugar to rise the yeast
  • 5 – 6.75 fl. oz. (150 – 200 ml) 2% low-fat milk
  • 6.75 fl. oz. (200 ml) heavy whipping cream
  • 3 – 4 tbsp sugar
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 whole egg + 1 egg yolk
  • 1 whole egg at the end to brush the challah with it before you bake it
  • Raisins are optional (but recommended) approximately 1 cup
  • You can also add cocoa powder to half of the strands.


If you use yeast, mix the yeast and 1 tsp sugar in 5 fl. oz. (1.5 dl) lukewarm milk and let it rise.

Sift the flour into a bowl, add salt, and sugar, and mix it. We make a well in the middle, and pour heavy whipping cream, egg, yolk, starter, and the 5 fl. oz. (150 ml) milk. We can add more milk if our dough is very hard during kneading.

We begin to knead. When it has pretty much come together into a ball, we put it out on the board and work out the dough thoroughly. It is good if our dough has a nice smooth, shiny surface and does not stick to the board.

Put in a bowl, cover it, and let it rise

  • with starter 4-5 hours
  • with yeast 3-4 hours

or put it in the fridge overnight.

Then cut into 4 or 8 identical pieces, depending on whether you want to bake one or two challahs. Add the raisins as you roll up the pieces one by one, cover them again and leave them to rest for 15 minutes.

After resting roll strands of the same length from the dough.

Braid the challah.

We lay it on baking paper and immediately brush it with a whole beaten egg. Make sure that the egg does not trickle between the braids. We now let our dough rise for about half an hour.

In the meantime preheat the oven to 375 Fahrenheit (190 Celsius). Brush the challah with the beaten eggs again, and you may sprinkle it with poppy seeds. Put it in the hot oven. After 10 minutes of baking, reduce the heat to 350 Fahrenheit (175 Celsius) degrees. The total baking time for smaller challah is about 30-35 minutes, and for the large challah is 40-45 minutes in total.

SnowRunner – Taymyr (spoiler)

Drowned Lands

Where to find cargo

Railway StationCargo container (2 slots)
Oil barrels (1 slot)
Cement (1 slot)
Service spare parts (1 slot)
WarehouseMetal beams (2 slots)
Vehicle spare parts (1 slot)


Where to find cargo

QuarryConcrete slabs (2 slots)


Clearing The WayMetal beams x2Fallen tower (North)
Off-RoaderTruck repaired and refueledNorthService HubThe Service Hub location on the Quarry map is revealed when the truck is repaired and refueled.

SnowRunner cheats and mods



SnowRunner task and contract information with interactive maps at


There are many SnowRunner mods available to enhance the game experience.

An extensive mod collection is at

Interesting mods

Install software development tools on Macintosh

There are tools and utilities software developers use to write, test and deploy code. These are some of them to make our life easier.

Text Editor

Visual Studio Code


  1. Download it from
  2. Double click the downloaded ZIP file to extract the application,
  3. Drag the Atom application into Applications

Configure Atom

See Atom text editor configuration

Terminal Window


Install iTerm2, a smart terminal emulator to issue Bash commands and log into Linux servers.

See Install and configure iTerm2


See Install Git on Macintosh

Install JQ

JQ is a JSON command line tool to read, write and convert data to an from JSON.

brew install jq

JSON in the browser

To automatically pretty print JSON responses in Chrome

Remote Desktop Client

Download the Microsoft Remote Desktop app from the App Store

  1. Open the App Store
  2. Search for “microsoft remote desktop”
  3. Click the Microsoft Remote Desktop icon
  4. Click the blue Get button
  5. Click the green Install App button

Nice to have utilities

Window Manager


Rectangle is a window management app based on Spectacle, written in Swift.
Installation instructions are at

  1. Install Rectangle with
    brew install --cask rectangle
  2. Configure iTerm for better resizing behavior with
    defaults write com.googlecode.iterm2 DisableWindowSizeSnap -integer 1

Comparison tools


Smart diff visualizer that highlights the parts of the line that changed

  1. Install it
    brew install diff-so-fancy
  2. Configure Git to use it as the default diff tool
    git config --global core.pager "diff-so-fancy | less --tabs=4 -RFX"

Install the database management tools

Working with Windows servers from the Mac

If you want to work with Windows servers, you may need to run Windows applications on

Memory usage monitor

  1. Download  Dr. Cleaner Elite from the App Store to be able to monitor memory, CPU and network usage from the Menu Bar.

Install the DevOps development tools on Macintosh


The Amazon Web Services command line interface installation will set up your workstation to launch instances in AWS from Test Kitchen. If you know you will work with AWS, see DevOps Engineering part 3. – Working with AWS for the AWS CLI installation.

Chef Development Kit

Terraform by Hashicorp

 Terraform Installation

  • Open a terminal window and execute
    brew install terraform

Vault CLI

Install the Vault CLI from

Currently the command to install Vault is 

sudo chown -R $(whoami) /usr/local/bin
brew tap hashicorp/tap
brew install hashicorp/tap/vault

SQL Command

To be able to execute Microsoft SQL commands from the command line or through Terraform, install the MS SQL utility

  1. Install NPM, the JavaScript package manager
    brew install node
  2. Install SQL CLI
    npm install -g sql-cli
  3. Check the installation by displaying the version information
    mssql --version

More information on the tool is at

Rarely used tools


We use Packer to create custom AWS AMIs that contain the fundamental configuration and applications that are common in every instance we launch.

Install Packer


Graphviz is a Dependency Graph Visualization Software. We will use this utility to display the Terraform graphs.

To install execute the following in the terminal

brew install graphviz


For the VirtualBox installation on your operating system see: VirtualBox


For Vagrant installation see Vagrant.


Ruby is already a part of the operating system.

Refueling in SnowRunner

You can always refuel your truck at the Fuel Stations, but there are fuel trailers on the maps where you can also fill up the tank of your truck.

  1. Park your truck close to the fuel trailer, so the fuel tank of the truck is close to it. If the truck has a long bed, like the Azov 64131 with a sideboard bed and a crane installed, the tank is too far from the trailer to detect it when you back to the trailer. Approach the trailer with the side or the cab of the truck.
  2. In the menu select Refuel.
  3. Set the trailer the source, and the truck as the target.

SnowRunner – Alaska, USA (spoiler)

North Port

There is an unfinished oil pipeline north of the garage. The unfinished pipe on the road blocks the easy access to the north side of the map. To open the road

  1. Open the Contracts list
  2. The Black Bird company is looking for help with Pipeline Construction. Complete it and the road opens.
Service SiteDrilling spare parts
Lost pipeLarge Pipe x1 (4 units long)– In the water north of the Drilling Site (crane needed) or
– West Factory or
– Port
Drilling siteA truck with a crane can pick it up north of the drilling site. No crane is needed at the port or the West Factory. Make sure the bed or trailer can hold a 4-unit long cargo because the pipe has to be “packed” to be available for unloading.
RoadblockMetal beams x1FactoryRoadblock north of the Garage
Black Bird co.
Pipeline construction
Spare partsWarehouseOil pipe construction north of the Garage
Black Bird co.
Floating drill
Oil rig salvage semi-trailerService Site in the southeast cornerPortSaddle high needed

Mountain River

Service HubService spare parts
Saw MillWooden planks
FactoryMetal beams
North Warehouse Small pipes
Medium pipes
Concrete slab
Restoring The BridgeConcrete slab x1
Service spare parts x2
Working StiffRepair a Caterpillar and take it to Saw MillSoutheast hilltopSaw Mill
Environmental issueCurtainside trailerNorthResearch zone
To White Valleyopen

Pedro Bay Alaska, USA

Stock LoadingWooden planks
Dangerous RouteWooden planks x4Stock LoadingBridge (North)
Morrison’s LandslideWooden planks x4Stock LoadingLandslide (North)
Family TreasureCurtain side trailerBehind Weather Conditions in a meadowBoat Station
Weather ConditionsScoutWeather ConditionsBoat Station
Old Mack and Drowned Car HummerNorth of Family TreasureParking Lot
Pole DownWooden planks x2Stock LoadingFallen electric pole
Moving the StockOil barrels x1
Wooden planks x2
Oil fields (crane needed)
Stock loading

White Valley

AirportDrilling equipment ( 4 slots )
Oversized cargo ( 4 slots )
Consumables ( 1 slot )
West WarehouseSmall pipes (2 slots)
Medium pipes (2 slots)
Large pipe (4 slots)
Concrete blocks (1 slot)
Cement (1 slot)
BridgeService spare parts x2 on a sideboard trailerOil Rig Service SiteBridge
Long BridgeWooden planks x2
Service spare parts x2
Logging Station
Service Hub
Long Bridge
Deep River DivingScout 800East of Long BridgeParking
Blocked TunelWarehouse or Factory
Concrete blocks x1
Small pipes x1
Nort-west tunnel