Anyu Gyümölcskenyere

Hozzávalók

  • 15 dkg cukor (fele barna cukor)
  • 1 csipet só
  • 6 tojás (fehérje, sárgája szétválasztva, a fehérjébe ne kerüljön sárgája, mert nem verődik fel habbá)
  • 1 csomag (12 g) sütőpor
  • 1/2 csomag (5 g) vaníliás cukor
  • 4 púpos evőkanál csemlemorzsa
  • 2 lapos evőkanál finomliszt
  • 35 dkg (12 oz.) gyümölcskeverék (cukrozott narancshély, durvára aprított dió, füge, aszalt gyümölcsök, mazsola, csokoládé)
  • olaj, liszt a forma kenéséhez

Elkészítés

  • A csümölcskeveréket és a csokoládét apróra vágjuk és a lisztet belekeverjük
  • A sütőport összekeverjük a zsemlemorzsával
  • A légkeveréses sütőt 200 °C-ra előmelegítjük
  • A tojások fehérjét géppel kemény habbá verjük, félretesszük
  • A tojások sárgáját a cukrokkal, vaníliás cukorral és sóval géppel fehéredésig keverjük, amíg a cukor felolvad
  • Hozzáadjuk a sütőporos zsemlemorzsát, kézzel elkeverjük
  • Hozzáadjuk a tojás fehérjét
  • Hozzáadjuk a lisztes gyümölcskeveréket
  • A formát sütőpapírral kibéleljük, vagy olajjal kikenjük és belisztezzük
  • A forma tetején hagyunk 1 cm helyet a táguláshoz
  • A forró sütőbe toljuk
  • A hőmérsékletet 5 perc múlva 160 °C-ra mérsékeljük és a tűpróbáig sütjük
  • A kikapcsolt sütőben 5 percig pihetetjük
  • A pulton a formában hagyjuk langyosra hűlni
  • Deszkára borítjuk, és amikor langyos, alufóliába csomagoljuk
  • 24 óráig nem eszünk belőle (ha képesek vagyunk rá)

Sütési hőmérsékletek légkeveréses sütőben

  • 5 perc 200 °C-on
  • 20 perc 160 °C-on (tűpróbáig)
  • 5 perc kikapcsolt sütőben csukott ajtóval

Docking in Kerbal Space Program

We will discuss two docking methods:

  • A slow, careful approach by repeatedly changing the orbit altitude to first catch up with, and later match the speed of the target. This is easier for beginners, as we gradually approach the target and its speed. It uses more fuel, in real life this method is not used.
  • Using a transfer orbit to quickly catch up with the target and slow down just before the intercept. This is a more dynamic process and requires more skills and attention.

The launch, orbit injection, and matching the inclination of the target are the same for both methods, we will start with these.

Key bindings

KeyAction
CClose the cockpit view and return to the normal view

Set the target

  • Click the target object and select Set as target

Launch the docking vehicle

  • Launch the docking vehicle before the target will pass the launch pad overhead as the rising vessel needs time to gain altitude and catch up with the target.
  • Set the Nav Ball to Target mode
  • Launch the docking vehicle
  • At 10 km altitude turn towards the target in a 45 degrees angle between the zenith and the target
  • Right-click the Apoapsis node to keep the values displayed
  • When the “T-” of the Apoapsis is over 1-minute, switch the Nav Ball to Orbit mode
  • Aim for the orbital velocity vector (prograde marker)
  • Continue to burn until the Apoapsis reaches the altitude of the target orbit
  • In the Apoapsis, create a maneuver node to move the Peiapsis to the same altitude to circularize the orbit, and reduce the inclination of the Ascending and Descending nodes. Adjust the Normal and Antinormal vectors to move the Ascending and Descending nodes 90 degrees to the Apoapsis and Periapsis.
  • Adjust the Prograde and Retrograde vectors to compensate for the Periapsis and Apoapsis altitude change caused by the Normal and Antinormal vector change.
  • Select Maneuver in SAS and start the burn. As we get close to the end of the burn duration, the velocity vector will deviate from the maneuver icon, so reduce the throttle and track the blue maneuver icon on the Nav Ball.

Match the inclination of the target

  • Right-click the Ascending or Descending node to display the inclination relative to the Target.
  • Create a maneuver in the closest Ascending or Descending node
  • Adjust the Normal vector to achieve “0” inclination relative to the Target on the Ascending or Descending node. Try moving the maneuver node itself a bit if it does not reach exactly zero.
  • Open the Maneuver Mode panel and the Graphical maneuver editor.
  • Select the Advanced orbital info tab
  • Select the Next Maneuver
  • Take note of the planned Inclination of the maneuver. We will stop the burn just before we reach that number on the ORBIT tab during the maneuver and fine-tune with a low burn.
  • Set the SAS to Maneuver and warp to the maneuver.
  • Start the burn, and watch the Inclination on the ORBIT tab and stop the burn a little earlier just before the inclination would reach the desired value
  • While the maneuver exists, the Ascending and Descending node on the map still displays the planned inclination. To display the actual value, delete the maneuver node and continue a low burn until the Ascending or Descending node indicator on the map turns to zero.

Catch up with the Target

There are multiple ways to catch up with the target.

Catch up slowly by gradually changing your orbit

Change your speed by altering the altitude of your orbit

  • Change the Nav Ball to Orbit mode
  • Change your speed to go faster to catch up or slow down to “wait” for the target to catch up with you.
    • If the target is ahead of you, lower your orbit to go faster
    • If the Target is behind you, raise your orbit to go slower.

If your target is in a 120 km orbit, depending on the altitude of your orbit each full orbit changes the distance:

– in a 110 in orbit: 70 km
– in a 130 km orbit: 80 km

  • Right-click the Target to display the altitude and distance information.

Bring the orbits closer

  • Warp ahead until the two spacecraft are at a 200 km distance.
  • Change the altitude difference to 5 km
    • Create a maneuver in the closest Periapsis or Apoapsis to change the altitude difference to 5 km
    • Set the SAS to Maneuver mode
    • Burn with the lowest throttle for better control
    • Circularize the orbit in the next Apoapsis or Periapsis.
  • Warp ahead until the two spacecraft are at a 50 km distance.
  • Change the altitude difference to 1 km, it will change the distance change to around 20 km per orbit.
    • Create a maneuver in the closest Periapsis or Apoapsis to change the altitude difference to 1 km
    • Set the SAS to Maneuver mode
    • Burn with the lowest throttle for better control
    • Circularize the orbit in the next Apoapsis or Periapsis.

Match the speed

The speed difference between the very close orbits should be below 400 m/s.

  • Warp ahead to reduce the distance
  • On the Approach Info tab of the Maneuver Mode panel, you can see information about the next two intersects.
  • When the distance value of Intersect 2 is greater than Intersect 1, the closest encounter will happen between them. It means Intersect 2 will happen after the two vessels already passed each other.
  • When the target indicator is 90 degrees from the velocity vector, the two spacecraft are above each other. Kill the speed difference by changing your orbit to match the target.

Align your vessel’s velocity vector to the target’s movement

IMPORTANT!!!

This is crucial, as for successful docking at the moment of contact the two vessels should have close to matching speed and direction. During the final approach, as you adjust the speed of your spacecraft, also continuously adjust your ship’s velocity vector, so in the final moments, the two will hover next to each other without much relative movement.

If arriving from below

If your orbit is below the target, burn prograde to raise your orbit. This will eventually slow you down.
Pull the Prograde symbol to the top of the Target symbol to move your ship towards the target.

If arriving from above

If your orbit is above the target, burn retrograde to lower your orbit. This will also speed you up.
Push the Retrograde symbol on top of the Anti-Target symbol.

Tip 1

When to push, and when to pull

When we run the engine, we always push the retrograde and pull the prograde symbol.
If the appropriate symbols are not visible at the same time, you can still pull or push the velocity vectors. In this example the target and the retrograde symbols are visible, and we want to speed up a little bit. We can still pull the prograde symbol toward the target by aiming between the retrograde and the target and pushing the retrograde symbol to the other side of the ball toward the anti-target symbol.

Tip 2

Curved path

As we are flying on a curved path, the target symbols and the velocity vector symbols (prograde and retrograde) continuously move relative to each other. As we approach the target, the retrograde vector tends to move toward the horizon. “Pushing” it back we can keep the velocity vectors of the ships aligned.

Approach the target

  • Make sure the Nav Ball is in Target mode and burn towards the target at 20 m/s speed
  • We continue this staggered approach to get closer to the target:
    • Catch up with the Target
      • If you are faster than the target in a lower orbit, burn retrograde
      • If you are slower than the target in a higher orbit, burn prograde
    • Kill the speed difference
      • When the target indicator is 90 degrees from the velocity vector, kill the speed difference by slowing down or speeding up to the speed of the target.
    • Move toward the target
      • Turn toward the target and start a burn
      • Cut the engine at 10 m/s speed difference
    • Turn retrograde and prepare to slow down
    • Slow down around 60 – 70 meters from the target

Catch up quickly via transfer orbit

  • Create a maneuver to get into the Transfer Orbit. Use the prograde or retrograde marker to reach the orbit of the Target, and move the maneuver to set the distance between the two orange markers below 5 km. If the pink markers appear, your trajectory will cross the target’s orbit and overshoot it. Reduce the burn duration until the pink markers disappear. You may need to select an orbit in the future to be able to burn at the correct time for a close intersect.
  • Make sure the new orbit stays above the 70 km thick atmosphere, otherwise the spacecraft can even burn up at the periapsis.
  • Set the SAS to Maneuver mode, and stop the burn before the estimated duration. Fine-tune the intersect with short low-throttle burns until the distance reaches the planned amount.

If the orbits are not parallel

If the orbits are just intersecting, we can create a maneuver in the intersecting point and adjust the prograde/retrogarade and radial in/ radial out vectors to bend our orbit to match the target

  • Create a a maneuver in the intersection point
  • If you Apoapsis or Periapsis is too extreme dial back the prograde or retrograde vector, and adjust the radial in / radial out vector to bend the curve
  • Adjust the prograde/retrograde and radial in/radial out vectors to match the trajectory of the target
  • If there is still a vertical separation between the orbits because of the different inclinations, use the normal/anti-normal vectors to bring the Ascending or Descending node close to the encounter.

Slow down

  • Click the speed indicator to switch to Target mode
  • Once in Target mode turn to Retrograde
  • Warp ahead even through multiple orbits until the two spacecraft reach the intersect point at the same time.
  • At 15 km distance from the Target burn until the relative velocity drops below 50 m/s. See Align your vessel’s velocity vector to the target’s movement

Align the docking ports

The easiest way to dock is if both vessels actively turn toward each other. We will set up active tracking on both ships. In this example, we will dock “Ship” to “Station”. When the vessels are close to each other you can use the “[” and “]” keys to switch between them.

  • Switch to Station
  • Right-click the docking port and select Control from Here
  • Select Ship as target
  • Turn on SAS and point Station to Target
  • Switch to Ship
  • Right-click the docking port and select Control from Here
  • Set Station as target
  • Turn on SAS and point Ship to Target

From now on the ports should continuously face each other.

Approach

  • Turn Retrograde to be able to use the engine to slow down if needed.
  • Turn on RCS with “R”
  • In Retrograde press the “H” RCS key to slow down, “N” to speed up until the Target speed drops to zero, or use the engine if more power is needed.
  • Turn Prograde, “H” is forward, and “N” is backward.
  • Use the RCS to approach it with no more then 10 m/s until it is in 100 distance.
  • Right-click the target to see its distance
  • Set the docking port as the target for a precise approach.

Final approach and docking

It is important to learn the basics of docking with a visual approach, to understand the steps necessary for success, but there is an excellent mod that provides a user interface to perfectly align the docking ports even in total darkness. Install the Docking Port Alignment Indicator mod (see Recommended mods for details)

Advantages

  • Adds port renaming functionality during construction and flight, so you can later select the target port by name at the bottom of the instrument.

Usage

  1. In the map view switch to the target vessel
  2. Right-click the receiving port, and select Control from Here, so the SAS of the approaching vessel can properly track it.
  3. Switch back to the approaching vessel, and make sure the target vessel is selected. If not, select it in the map view
  4. Right-click the port on your vessel and select Control from Here
  5. When you are 2.5 km or closer to the target, select the target port on the Docking Port Alignment Indicator UI.
  6. During the final approach, the only thing you need to do is to
    • set your SAS to track the target
    • with your lateral RCS controls (I J K L) keep the green prograde marker on the intersection of the green lines, and control the approach speed with H and N. If you successfully track the green lines, your vessel will slowly line up with the target port. The orange marker at the top of the circle shows the 0° of the port of your vessel. Use Q and E to rotate your craft.
  7. If the two lines are red, you are approaching the target port in the wrong direction. The orange arrow on the UI shows the direction you should move the prograde or retrograde icon for the correct alignment. If the yellow symbol changes from prograde to retrograde, you are getting farther away from the target.

Fine tune the docked module rotation angle

When a module has been docked, you can fine-tune the angle +- 15 degrees using the docking port menu. It looks like the module position is not saved, so when you reload the game all modules turn back to the original angle.

  • Right-click the docking port
  • Move the Alignment Angle slider to fine-tune the rotation of the docked module
  • The Invert Direction button changes the direction of the rotation.

Re-docking

When you just want to re-align a docked module the docking port needs to be reset. When you undock, the magnetic force which attracts the ports is turned off and the port is deactivated to let you leave the vicinity of the port. This prevents quick re-docking the same module. The port is reactivated when the module is moved at least 1.5 meters away, but if you just want to rotate the module sometimes it is not practical.

To quickly re-enable the docking port

  • Undock the module
  • Press F5 to “quick save” the game scenario
  • Hold F9 to reload the last quick save
  • Dock again

Transfer the crew

To transfer the crew between docked vessels

  • Click the hatch, or right-click the module, where the crew member is located and select Transfer Crew
  • Click the Transfer button of the crew member to transfer across the docking port
  • Click the target module to select it. In a few seconds, after a “tv static” video effect
  • the crew member will appear in the new environment

Docking tutorial videos

Teaching the transfer orbit method

Teaching catching up slowly by gradually changing your orbit

Kerbal Space Program cheats

Building the right spacecraft and flying those successfully can be challenging in Kerbal Space Program. To aid beginners KSP has official, but not well-advertised cheats.

Emergency exit

When something goes terribly wrong (it can happen any time in Kerbal Space Program) on the PC press Alt-F4 to exit the program without saving. Windows terminates the program and you can load the game again with the state of the last save.

Before a risky maneuver, like a spacewalk, save the game with F5

Cheat menu

To open the official built-in KSP cheat press Alt-F12. There is an alternate way to open the cheat menu:

  • Press ESC to open the pause menu
  • Click the version info link
  • Click Cheats to open the main cheat page

These cheat settings are not saved, so when you launch the program the next day, you have to set them again.

Orbit

To place a spacecraft into a specific orbit and prepare the rendezvous with an asteroid or another ship open the Set Orbit panel.

The default settings on the Set Orbit panel place the spacecraft in a circular orbit around Kerbin at 86.75 km altitude above the surface.

  • Semi-Major Axis: The average of the apsides (Apoapsis and Periapsis) and usually measured from the body’s center in meters. The radius of Kerbin is 600,000 m, so the orbit altitude above the surface is 600 km less than this number.
    The Major axis is the distance between the Periapsis and the Apoapsis. The Semi-Major axis is half of it.
  • Eccentricity: The eccentricity gives how circular the orbit is (0 – 1).
    If a = Semi-Major Axis, based on these numbers we can calculate the
    • Periapsis = a * ( 1 – Eccecntricity)
    • Apoapsis = a * ( 1 + Eccentricity )
  • Inclination: The tilt of the orbit is given by the inclination in degrees ( –90° and 270°). Over 90 ° is a retrograde orbit (rotating against the planet’s rotation)
  • MNA: Mean anomaly at epoch, a pseudo-angle (up to 2π) expressing the proportion of the orbital period that has passed since the last periapsis (0 – 6.2831853071796). It shows how far we are in the orbit starting at the Periapsis.
  • OBT: it looks like this number does not have any effect on the orbit.
  • LAN: Longitude of ascending node specifies the tilt of the orbital plane (anticlockwise from the ecliptic at the ascending node) and its orientation (anticlockwise from the vernal point to the ascending node). (0 – 360)
  • Arg PE:  Argument of periapsis is the angle from the body’s ascending node to its periapsis, measured in the direction of motion. (0 – 360)

Editing the orbit in the save file

Set the bold values and delete the landedAt value to place the vessel into orbit.

		VESSEL
		{
			pid = b799bc0c84f845a4846b83a895338a2b
			persistentId = 1687642773
			name = Ast. IDB-108
			type = SpaceObject
			sit = ORBITING
			landed = False
			...
                        landedAt = 
                        ...
                        ...
                        ORBIT
			{
				SMA = 14166812485.399822
				ECC = 0.042225008870871029
				INC = 0.72660797415961664
				LPE = 340.34913835882173
				LAN = 321.06131061108044
				MNA = 0.31477348773277997
				EPH = 3608003.4179101563
				REF = 0
			}

When you edit the orbit attributes in the save file you need to specify the planet you are orbiting around.

REF

  • 0 = Kerbol
  • 1 = Kerbin
  • 2 = Mun
  • 3 = Minmus
  • 4 = Moho
  • 5 = Eve
  • 6 = Duna
  • 7 = Ike
  • 8 = Jool
  • 9 = Laythe
  • 10 = Vall
  • 11 = Bop
  • 12 = Tylo
  • 13 = Gilly
  • 14 = Pol
  • 15 = Dres

Rendezvous

To place a spacecraft next to an asteroid or another ship, use the Set Orbit cheat panel.

To place to spacecraft next to each other in orbit for docking

  • Select the first spacecraft in the Tracking Station and click the Fly button
  • Open the cheat menu with Alt-F12
  • Place the spacecraft in an orbit
  • Select the second spacecraft in the Tracking Station and click the Fly button
  • Open the cheat menu with Alt-F12
  • Place the second spacecraft in the same orbit
  • Select the first spacecraft at the bottom of the panel, set the distance, and click the Rendezvous button.

Save Game State

This is really not a cheat but can be very useful to save the game state from time to time to be able to return to a scenario if something goes wrong, or just to practice a certain maneuver. The game is automatically saved in reular intervals, or by pressing F5, but there is no way to go back in time to an earlier save. You can save the game state with a name before a complex docking maneuver, so if there is a collision between the vessels or any of them spins out of control, you can start over again.

Save the game state

  • Press the ESC key to bring up the pause menu
  • Click the Save Game… button,
  • Use a descriptive name, so it will be easier to find the state save later.

Load a saved game state

Unfortunately, the menus call the game and the games state the same. To load the saved game state, first load the game, and after that load the game state.

  • In the Kerbal Space Program main menu select Start Game
  • In the Game menu select Resume Saved
  • First, load the game
  • Press ESC to open the pause menu and select Load Save…
  • Select the game state and click Load

This will revert the game to the state you saved, no matter what happened after that in the game.

KSS space station construction in Kerbal Space Program

The easiest way to build a space station in low Kerbal orbit is to

  • build it in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB),
  • break it apart and save the modules as subassemblies,
  • launch the modules individually,
  • dock them together in orbit.

Build the space station

You can build the space station yourself, or load one from Steam.

Using a pre-built space station

I have run into stability issues with the KSS space station. When a few modules have been assembled, it started to wave side by side. I think the issue is, that the heavy fuel tanks are at the edges, and the center is hollow crew modules. Also, the docking ports don’t provide enough rigidity to the structure. If you want to use it

  • Subscribe to the space station of your choice on Steam
  • Load the KSS space station from Steam
  • Label the modules

Build your own space station

To make the station more robust, I use the Rockomax Adapter where the Clamp-O-Tron Docking Port Sr. is too big by itself to connect to the part, like the Rockomax HubMax Multi Point Connector.

The core

The core at the center of mass should contain the battery, reaction wheels, and control units

Z-4K Rechargeable Battery Units (4)
Advanced Reaction Wheel Large
RC-L01 Remote Guidance Unit
OX-STAT-XL Photovoltaic Panels

Additional Control

Use the Advanced Inline Stabilizer off the center of mass to assist in attitude control.

Joining modules

The Clamp-O-Tron Docking Port Sr. provides a very strong connection between large-diameter modules. If a smaller port is used between modules, reinforce it with a Rockomax Brand Adapter 02 and 4 Clamp-O-Tron Docking Port Jrs. attached with girders.

Crew modules

The MK1 Crew Cabin, and the MK3 Passenger Module provide comfortable accommodation, but those have smaller diameters. If you are looking for a large-diameter module with windows, use the Mobile Processing Lab MPL-LG-2

Fuel Tanks

To provide enough fuel for docking vessels, use the

  • Rockomax X200-32 large diameter, FL-T800 medium diameter long fuel tank for liquid fuel storage
  • FL-R120 and FL-R750 RCS Fuel Tank for monopropellant
  • PB-X750 Xenon Container for the IX-6315 “Dawn” Electric Propulsion System ( ion engine)

If the space station contains a Cupola

The Cupola can host one astronaut.

Launching the Cupola with a booster equipped with a Probe Core

When you launch the Cupola, place an astronaut in the cupola. Make sure the front of the Cupola and the Probe Core faces the same way, otherwise, the booster becomes uncontrollable, as the Cupola and the Probe Core will issue conflicting commands to the engines, the Reaction Wheel Module, and the RCS.

  • Rotate the Cupola, so the hatch is facing you (West) in the VAB.
  • Rotate the Probe Core, so the label is facing the same way (West in the VAB).
  • If the cupola is upside down, right-click the Cupola to open the menu, and click the Control Point button until it shows Reversed.

Controlling the space station from the Cupola

To control the space station from the Cupola set the control point correctly.

  • Right-click the Cupola
  • In the panel click the Control Point button until it shows Forward.

Great videos on space station construction

Kerbal Space Program configuration

To disable the game launcher for simpler game launch

  • In the main menu select Settings
    • On the General tab, check
      • Advanced Tweakables
      • Show Extended Burn Indicator
      • Ghosted Navigation Markers on Navball
      • Don’t Show Game Launcher
    • On the Graphics tab set
      • Ambient Light Boost 50%
      • Ambient Light Boost: Map 50%
      • Ambient Light Boost: Editor 50%

  • Press ALT-F12 to open the Debug screen
    • On the Physics page enable Visualize Autostruts
      Those are struts connecting parts for more rigidity, we will discuss their usage at Autostruts.

How to add comments to JSON files

JSON was designed to be a data only format, and deliberately does not support comments to avoid parsing directives which could break compatibility.

There is a way to add comments as custom elements:

{
    "//comment_1": "This is the first comment.",
    "//comment_2": "This is the second comment.",
    "Name": "John von Neumann",
    "Born": 1903,
    "item": {
        "//item_comment_1": "A nested comment.",
        "//item_comment_2": "Another nested comment.",
        "Field": "Computer science"
    }
}

Spacecraft specs in Kerbal Space Program

These are notes on the specifications of spacecraft for specific purposes.

Spacecraft to go to orbit

Rotate the spacecraft 90 degrees with “Q” so the pod hatch faces you in the VAB, the spacecraft heading 90 degrees on the launch pad for easier control with the elevator.

PartModel (symmetry)NotesStage
ParachuteMK16Min pressure = 0.6
Altitude = 1000
0
Command podMk1This should be the first part of the craft
Heat shield1.25 m
Upper stage
Decoupler TD-121
RCS fuel tankFL-R120Monopropellant = 100/250
Fuel tankFL-T100
Fuel tankFL-T400

RCS Truster block(4) RV-105On top of FL-T400 fuel tank
Battery(4) Z-100 Rechargeable battery packOn bottom of FL-T400 fuel tank
Solar panels(4) OX-STAT Photovoltaic panelsOn bottom of FL-T400 fuel tank
set Toggle Snap to 6 sided before placing it
rotate 90 degrees to horizontal
EngineLV-909 “Terrier” Liquid fuel engine2
Booster
Decoupler TD-123
Fuel tankFL-T400
Fuel tankFL-T400
Winglet(4) AV-R8On lower FL-T400 fuel tank
Radial decoupler for solid fuel boosters(2) TT-38KOn lower FL-T400 fuel tank4
Booster engines(2) RT-10 “Hammer” Solid fuel boosteron radial coupler
with “aerodynamic nose cone”
5
Booster main engineLV-T45 “Swivel” Liquid fuel engineTrust limiter = 655

To launch the space station modules to low Kerbin orbit

PartModel (symmetry)NotesStage
The station module
Upper stage
DecouplerTD-25 DecouplerThis will release the payload0
FairingAE-FF2 Airstream protective shell (2.5 m)1
Remote guidance unitRC-L01 Remote guidance unit
Fuel tankRockomax X200-32 Fuel Tank
Solar panelsOX-STAT-XL Photovoltaic panels (4)
BatteriesZ-400 Rechargeable Battery (4)
EngineRE-L10 “Poodle” Liquid Fuel Engine2
Booster
DecouplerTD-25 Decoupler3
Fuel tankRockomax Jumbo-64 Fuel TankOrange variant looks great
Radial decouplerTT-38K Radial Decoupler (4)On main fuel tank4
Main center engineRE-M3 “Mainsail” Liquid Fuel Engine5
Booster fuel tanksFL-T800 Fuel Tank ( 2 x 4)On radial decouplers
with “aerodynamic nose cone”
with EAS-4 Strut connectors to attach the top (3) and bottom (1) to the main fuel tank
Booster enginesLV-T45 “Swivel” Liquid Fuel Engnies (4)5
WingletsAV-R8 Winglets (4)On the main fuel tank

Tie down the payload

  • When the payload is attached make sure to select “Autostrut heaviest part” of every payload items.

Using FreeCAD

View rotation

Preset view rotations

Use the icons in the toolbar for preset rotations

Free view rotation

Press the shift key and rotate the view with the right mouse button.
See https://wiki.freecadweb.org/Mouse_navigation for more options.

To cut a hole

  • Create the object
  • Create a cylinder for the hole
  • Position the cylinder where the hole should be
  • On the left side of the “Part” workbench select the Model tab
  • First select the base object, after that the hole object
  • On the toolbar select the Cut icon
  • On the left side set the object as the base, the hole as the tool

Multiply objects

Create an array to multiply objects

To arrange the objects along a circle, create a polar array

  • Switch to the “Draft” workbench
  • Select the object to multiply
  • In the Modification menu select Array, Polar array
  • On the left side set the
  • Click the center of the circle to set the Center of rotation

Export part for 3D printing

Export from FreeCAD

To make sure the exported mesh contains the final object including all cuts

  • On the Model tab select the top level nodes
  • In the File menu select Export
  • Export as .stl

Convert the .stl file to .gcode in Cura

  • Open the .stl file in Ultimaker – Cura
  • Set the printer-specific parameters
  • Save the project in .3mf file for further modifications
  • Export the file to .gcode for 3D printing

Flying spacecraft in Kerbal Space Program

Controls

KeyFunction
F5Quick save the game
ZFull throttle
Left ShiftThrottle up
Left ControlThrottle down
XStop engine
SpaceStaging
TToggle SRS on and off
FTemporarily toggle SRS
Caps LockExact control mode
RToggle RCS on and off
MToggle map view
VCamera mode: Auto, Free, Orbital, Chase, Locked
“[” or “]”Cycles through nearby vessels.
` (backtick)Focus view on the current spacecraft

Avoid accidental staging

When you are in orbit and you don’t want to accidentally stage parts of the spacecraft, hide the staging panels.

  • Click the Display Staging button to hide the staging panel.
  • The Stage light will turn light red.

Time Warp

  • Press the period (.) key to speed up time, and press the comma (,) to slow down
  • Click the Time Warp indicator to change the Warp speed
  • Click the orbit and select Warp Here to time warp to that point

Warp to sunrise

Launch and docking are sometimes hard to do in darkness. Click the Warp to Sunrise button to advance the time to sunrise. Make sure no collision happens during the time change.

Flight information

In the Map view

Apoapsis and Periapsis

Hover above the “Ap” (Apoapsis) and “Pe” (Periapsis) icons to view the changing numbers, and right-click them to keep the numbers displayed.

Flight control

The NavBall

The NavBall symbols

Manual flight control

As we rotated the craft 90 degrees in the VAB, use the up (W) and down (S) keys to turn East.

Automatic attitude control

To enable automatic flight control after launch

  • Turn on SRS with “T” and
  • Click the Target icon

Automatic maneuver orientation

To automatically rotate the spacecraft to the maneuver marker

  • Turn on SRS with “T” and
  • Click the Maneuver icon

Note: You still have to initiate the burn, this is just for automatic spacecraft orinetation.

Automatic prograde orientation

To speed up the spacecraft keep it aligned prograde during the burn

  • Turn on SRS with “T” and
  • Click the Prograde icon

Automatic retrograde orientation

To slow down the spacecraft, keep it aligned retrograde during the burn

  • Turn on SRS with “T” and
  • Click the Retrograde icon

Changing orbit

Going to orbit

Start pitching east at 60 m/s speed. Slowly keep pitching over, always aiming about ~5-10° below your current prograde marker. If the spacecraft is long, the air resistance can flip the ship.

Maintain this until your map’s apoapsis point is at about 80 km.

  • 200 m/s 75°
  • 300 m/s 65°
  • 400 m/s 65°
  • Stage solid boosters
  • 500 m/s 60°
  • 530 m/s 50°
  • 600 m/s 40°
  • 700 m/s 30°
  • 800 m/s 25°
  • Stage lower-stage
  • Start upper-stage engine
  • 900 m/s 15°
  • 1100 m/s 10°
  • 1500 m/s 5°
  • Stop the engine when the apoapsis is 80 km (this already happens around 2000 m/s speed and 60 km altitude with the periapsis around -54 km)
  • Create and execute a maneuver at apoapsis to raise the periapsis to 80 km

Changing Apoapsis and Periapsis elevations

  • To change the elevation of the Apoapsis and Periapsis burn at the opposite point.
    • To raise the Periapsis, at the Apoapsis turn prograde and start a burn. (Fine tune with radial in burn.)
    • To lower the Periapsis, at the Apoapsis turn retrograde and start a burn. (Fine tune with radial out burn.)
  • Click the Apopsis or Periapsis to place a Maneuver
  • On the Maneuver panel, open the Graphical Maneuver Editor
  • Set the “Scale”, the value of one click
  • Click the symbols to adjust the orbit

Return from orbit

To return from orbit lower the Periapsis to 32 km. The atmosphere will slow down the spacecraft preventing it to reach Apoapsis again.

  • At the Apoapsis turn retrograde and continue to burn until the Periapsis lowers to 32 km.
  • Open the parachute below the speed of sound (330 m/s) when the G force reduces to close to 0, around 100-150 m/s speed, at a height of around 3-5 km.

Maneuver nodes

We can set up maneuvers ahead of time and the spacecraft will execute them at the correct time with the correct burn length.

Create a maneuver node

  • Click the orbit and select Add Maneuver to place a maneuver node

Set up the maneuver

  • Pull the handles to plan to change the speed of the spacecraft into that direction. Watch the orbit to make sure you reach your desired destination. The farther you pull the handle the faster the orbit changes. Release the handle to stop the orbit change.
  • Watch the Apoapsis and Periapsis display to see the result of the burn

Delay and delete the maneuver

  • First, click the maneuver node to show the handles
  • Right-click the inner circle to switch to the other view
  • Click the red X to delete the node, the plus and minus icons to increment and decrement the orbit counter to delay the execution of the maneuver.

Execute the maneuver

  • Click the dashed planned orbit line and select Warp to Next Maneuver to move the time to 90 seconds before the maneuver
  • Rotate the spacecraft to align it with the blue cross on the NavBall
  • Split the burn duration around the node time, so start the burn before its time by half of its duration. Start a one-minute burn at T minus 30 seconds.
  • If the burn is very short, less than a few seconds, execute the burn with the low throttle for better control.
    • If you burn with the lowest setting, it is approximately 6.66% power. In this setting, you have to run the engine for 15 times longer than the estimated burn. So a 1-second full throttle estimated burn needs 15 seconds of low throttle burn. So start the burn at T – 7 seconds to center the burn around the maneuver time.

Stop the burn at the correct moment

To make sure you cut off the engine at the right moment, watch the resulting Periapsis or Apoapsis number, do not entirely rely on the calculated burn time.

  • Right-click the blue Periapsis or Apoapsis icon of the actual orbit to keep the number displayed, or open the Maneuver Node panel.
  • During the burn, watch the number change and stop the burn when it reaches the planned amount.

Close the maneuver

If you have already reached the correct orbit and the maneuver is no longer needed

  • Click the red X or green check mark to delete the maneuver

Warp to a location

To warp to a location on the orbit

  • Click the point on the solid orbit line where you want to warp to and select Warp Here

To warp to the next maneuver

  • Click anywhere on the dashed planned orbit and select Warp to Next Maneuver


    OR if the solid and dashed lines overlap
  • Click the Maneuver Mode button in the lower left corner to open the maneuver dashboard

  • Click the Warp to Next Maneuver button on the ORBIT display in the lower-left corner of the screen


    OR
  • Click the Next Maneuver button on the ORBIT display to go to the next maneuver
  • Click the Warp to Next Maneuver button on the MANEUVER display