The stopped Docker containers are still available for troubleshooting. You can create an image of them and run them as new containers to inspect the log files and execute commands in them.
View the standard output of the failed container
docker logs MY_CONTAINER_ID
Run a failing container with a Bash terminal
If a container exists with an error within a few seconds, it can be beneficial to start a terminal window in it to view the log files and execute commands. We will override the entry point of the container to start a Bash terminal.
Create an image of the stopped container
docker commit MY_STOPPED_CONTAINER_ID MY_NEW_IMAGE NAME
Run the saved image as a new container and start a Bash terminal instead of the original entry point
docker run -it --entrypoint bash MY_NEW_IMAGE_NAME