Find the AWS account number

The AWS account number uniquely identifies the AWs account you are working with. All AWS “arn” identifiers contain it, and you need to know it when you want to share AMIs with other accounts.

If there are no resources created yet in the account, you can find the account number in the “arn” of your user account.

  1. Log into the AWS Console
  2. In the upper right corner click your username and select My Security Credentials
  3. On the left side select Users, and click any of the usernames in the list
  4. The account number is part of the “User ARN”

Execute Terraform scripts with Octopus

Terraform is a very powerful, free command-line tool to launch servers in any cloud or virtual machine environment. Hashicorp, the creator of Terraform just introduced the paid Terraform Enterprise server, that orchestrates the execution of the Terraform scripts.

Octopus is another tool that added Terraform orchestration functionality in version 2018.3

In this example, we will set up a Multi-Tenant Octopus project to launch servers in AWS with Terraform scripts and configure them with Chef.

Terraform script location

Create a GitHub repository for the Terraform script

GitHub is the most flexible way to store the Terraform scripts. Octopus can download and execute the same script in multiple Octopus projects. This eliminates the code duplication and makes the scripts available for execution from the command line.

Create a GitHub user with read access to the repository

If the GitHub repository is private, Octopus will need a way to access it with a username and password.

Tag the source code version, Octopus needs a version to refer to the version of your script

git tag 1.0.0
git push --tags

Automation with Octopus

We will create a Multi-Tenant Octopus project to be able to use the same Octopus project for multiple server types in multiple AWS environments.

We will create

  • an Octopus project group to hold the AWS launch projects,
  • a generic Octopus project to launch an AWS EC2 instance,
  • an operating system specific Octopus project that calls the generic project
  • environments for each AWS account, application, application environment,
  • tenants for each server.

Create the Environments

  1. On the Infrastructure Octopus page select Environments
  2. On the Environments page click the ADD ENVIRONMENT button
  3. Create the environments you need (aws-dev, aws-qa, aws-uat, aws-prod)


Create a Lifecycle

The lifecycle governs how the project is promoted between environments.

  1. On the Library Octopus page select Lifecycles
  2. Click the ADD LIFECYCLE button
  3. Enter the name and description of the Lifecycle and click the ADD PHASE button

  4. Enter a name for the Phase and click the ADD ENVIRONMENT link to select the environment
  5. Select the environment and the Users will need to manually… radio button
  6. Keep the All environments must be deployed… and click the Save button.

Create a project group

The project group holds your launch projects together.

  1. On the Projects Octopus page select ADD GROUP
  2. Enter a name and description for the project group

Create a GitHub feed

This feed will allow Octopus to connect to GitHub

  1. On the Library Octopus page select External Feeds
  2. Click the ADD FEED button
  3. Select the GitHub Repository Feed type, enter a name and copy the recommended URL. Add the GitHub user’s name and password you have created above, and click the SAVE AND TEST link

  4. Enter the complete name of your Terraform repository and click the SEARCH button to make sure Octopus has access to the private repository. If you do not specify the full path of the repository, the search will display public repositories with similar names.

Store an AWS account reference in Octopus

AWS accounts store the credentials to connect to Amazon Web Sevices

  1. On the Infrastructure page select Accounts
  2. In the Amazon Web Services section click the ADD ACCOUNT button
  3. Enter a name, description, Access Key and Secret Key for the account. Enable the usage in tenanted and untenanted deployments, and click the SAVE AND TEST link.



Store the certificates in Octopus

Store your private keys in Octopus, so you can reference them in your variables.

  1. On the Library page select Accounts
  2. In the SSH Key Pairs section click the ADD ACCOUNT button
  3. Enter the certificate name, the username, and click the up arrow to upload the certificate file to the Octopus server. Select the Include in both tenanted and untenanted deployments radio button.

  4. Click the SAVE button to save the certificate in Octopus

Create a Project

The project contains the reference to the Terraform script to launch the server, the connection to the GitHub repository where the Terraform script is stored, and credentials to access the AWS account. The Terraform script and GitHub connection are going to be the same for every server launch, but the AWS account credentials have to be different for each AWS account. If you work with multiple AWS accounts, you need to create separate projects for each AWS account.

  1. On the Projects Octopus page scroll down to the DevOps project group and click the ADD PROJECT button
  2. Enter a name and description for the new project, and click the ADVANCED SETTINGS link
  3. Select the lifecycle you have created earlier, and click the SAVE button.

Create the launch process

  1. On the left side select the Process menu item
  2. On the Process page click the ADD STEP button
  3. Type “terraform” into the filter field and select Apply a Terraform template step

Create the variables

  1. In the project click the Variables menu item
  2. Enter the name of the variable and click the value field
  3. Click the CHANGE TYPE link
  4. Select the Amazon Web Services Account type
  5. Enter a description and select the AWS account you have created above, and click the DONE button.
  6. Create the rest of the variables.
  7. Add prefixes to the variables that will be set in the OS-specific parent project, in the tenant, environment, and target.

Update the variable names in the Terraform script

When we added prefixes to the project variables to show which component responsible for setting it, we have changed the variable name. Update the Terraform script to reflect it.

ami = "#{os.instance_ami}"


Create an OS-specifc project that calls the generic project

There are values that are different for each operating system in each AWS account.

The AMI ID depends on the operating system and the application environment. We can test the new version of the operating system in the development environment, while we are still launching servers with the old, tested version for production.

The common, OS-specific security group ID is different in every AWS account. It depends on the AWS account and the operating system.

To be able to set the value of this variable based on the OS and the AWs account, or the OS and application environment, we need to create an OS-specific project that passes in the appropriate variable values to the generic project.

  1. On the Projects page scroll down to the DevOps project group and click the ADD PROJECT button
  2. Enter the name and description of the new project and click the ADVANCED SETTINGS link
  3. Select the DevOps-aws-lifecycle
  4. Click the Process menu item
  5. Click the ADD STEP button
  6. Select the Deploy a Release step
  7. Enter the name for the step and select the generic AWS EC2 Launch project

Create variables

Set the OS-specific variables in the OS-specific parent project. To avoid variable name collision later add the parent.prefix to the variables passed in from the parent to the child project.

Settings

  1. Click the Settings menu item
  2. Require tenant for the deployment, allow the deployment without target, and ask if there is an error. Chef raises an error when it reboots the server, so if the Chef cookbook contains the reboot resource, we need to accept the error for a successful deployment.
  3. Click the Variables menu item
  4. Add the OS-specific variables

Create Library Variable Templates

Library Variable Sets specify the variables that have to be set in a higher level component, like a tenant, environment, and target.

  1. On the Library Octopus page select Variable Sets
  2. On the Variable Sets page click the ADD NEW VARIABLE SET button
  3. Enter a name and description for the library variable set
  4. Click the VARIABLE TEMPLATES tab
  5. On the VARIABLE TEMPLATES tab click the ADD TEMPLATE link
  6. Add the variables to the Library Variable Template. For pre-defined choices use the Drop down control type. To avoid variable name collisions when we pass the variable values to the child project later, add the “parent.” prefix to every variable.

  7. Save the Library Variable Template

Add the Library Variable Templates to the OS-specific project

Add the Library Variable Sets to the OS-specific project, so the tenants can set them with the instance-specific values.

  1. Open the project and select the Variables menu item
  2. Select the Library Sets menu item
  3. Click the INCLUDE LIBRARY VARIABLE SETS button
  4. Select the newly created Library Variable Set

Pass the variables from the parent project to the child project

The parent project can pass variables into the child project. Select the variable to pass into the child project. You need to do this in every parent project that call the common child project.

  1. In every parent project select Process
  2. Select the process that calls the child project
  3. Click the Variables section
  4. Click the ADD VARIABLE link
  5. Add the OS-specific variables set in the parent project and the host-specific variables defined in the Library Variable Template and set in the tenant.

Create a Tenant

Tenants are server types that use the same Octopus project. A tenant can be an application or a software development project where the servers share common attributes and run on the same operating system type, like all Linux, or all Windows, so the same Terraform script can launch them.

  1. In Octopus select the Tenants page and click the ADD TENANT button
  2. Enter the name of the new tenant
  3. Click the Setting button to select a logo for the tenant
  4. Click the logo placeholder to open the region
  5. Click the file selection button to browse to a 100×100 image file

Tag the Tenant

Tags help you to organize your tenants.

  1. On the Library page select Tenant Tag Sets
  2. Click the ADD TAG SET button
  3. Enter a name and description for the tag set, and create the first tag, and click the ADD link
  4. Click the EDIT TAGS link to add tags to the tenant
  5. Click the small arrow to select the tags

Connect the Tenant to the project

  1. On the Tenants page select the tenant you want to add to the project
  2. Click the CONNECT PROJECT button
  3. Select the project and all environments you want to launch instances for this tenant (software project)

Set the tenant variable values

  1. On the Tenant page select Variables
  2. Select the COMMON VARIABLES tab
  3. Click the name of the template to open it
  4. Set the value and click the Bind icon
  5. When all required variables are set, the SAVE button becomes available.

Create a deployment target (server)

Deployment targets are the servers we are launching. In enterprise settings, all servers have a standardized name that conforms to the company standards.

  1. In the
  2. Click the ADD DEPLOYMENT TARGET button
  3. Select the Cloud Region radio button
  4.  Enter the server name, deployment and a role, and do not press the Save button yet
  5. In the Restrictions region select the Include in both tenanted and untenanted deployments radio button select the Tenant you have created.

Create project releases

If there was a change in the child project, we need to create a release for the child project and all parent projects that call it.

Create a release of the child project

  1. On the project page click the CREATE RELEASE button
  2. If you use GitHub as the Terraform script source, the no version specified message displays in the Packages section
  3. Tag the GitHub repository. Octopus needs a version to link to a GitHub package.
    git tag 1.0.0
    git push --tags
  4. Click the SEARCH link to find the latest version of the repository
  5. Select the latest version of the GitHub repository
  6. Click the SAVE button

Create releases for the parent projects

  1. Open the project
  2. Click the CREATE RELEASE button
  3. Enter the Release Notes, so later you can identify this release

Deploy the server

  1. Open the OS-specific project
  2. Click the Releases menu item
  3. Select the release
  4. Click the DEPLOY TO button and select the environment

    1. If the project was already deployed to an environment, that environment does not show up in the list, so click the ellipsis and select Delpoy To from the dropdown menu.
    2. Select the environment from the list
  5. Click the tenant section to select the tenant (server) to launch
  6. Click the DEPLOY button

Adding new servers, operating systems, environments, and AWS accounts

New Server

  1. Create a new Tenant

New Application

  1. Create a new Tenant Tag in the “DevOps Applications” Tenant Tag Set
  2. Add the new Tenants to the Tenant Tag of the application

New Operating System

  1. Clone one of the DevOps AWS EC2 OS… projects
  2. Update the project settings, because those are not cloned
    1. Tenants required for all deployments
    2. Deployments with no target allowed
  3. Update the project variables for the new operating system
  4. Create a release of the new project
  5. Create new Tenants and link them to the new OS project

New Environment or AWS account

  1. Create the DevOps-env-[environment][account number] environment
  2. Add the new environment to the “DevOps-aws-lifecycle”
  3. Add the new environment to the variables in the
    1. DevOps AWS EC2 Launch project
      1. account.aws_key
      2. account.aws_key_name
      3. environment.aws_account_credentials
      4. environment.chef_environment
      5. environment.instance_tag_environment
    2. DevOps AWS EC2 OS… projects
      1. parent.os.account.instance_common_security_group_id

New Chef Attribute

To pass in a new Chef attribute from the Tenant

  1. Add the new attribute to the chef_attributes.json file with variable substitution
    {
     "set_hostname": "#{host.set_hostname}",
     "agent_name": "#{host.agent_name}",
     "add_to_domain": "#{host.add_to_domain}"
    }
  2. Add the new variable to the Library Variable Set’s Variable Template with the parent. prefix
  3. Add the new variable to the passed in variable list in every parent project process. See Pass the variables from the parent project to the child project

Troubleshooting

To save the variable values to the log add the following two variables to the project

OctopusPrintVariables True
OctopusPrintEvaluatedVariables True

For the change to take effect

Create a new release

or 

Update the variable snapshot of the existing release

  1. On the Project -> Releases  page select the latest release
  2. In the Variable Snapshot section click the SHOW link
  3. Click the UPDATE VARIABLES link

More info at https://octopus.com/docs/support/debug-problems-with-octopus-variables

 

 

 

Open the system drive of an AWS instance you cannot log into

If you cannot log into an AWS instance and want to inspect files on it, you can detach the volume from the lost instance and attach it to another instance as the secondary drive.

Create a new instance

  1. Create a new AWS instance and log into it,
  2. Make a note of the Instance ID of this new instance,
  3. In the AWS console find your lost instance, that you cannot log into, by IP address or server name,
  4. Using the AWS console stop the lost instance,
  5. Make a note of the Instance ID of the stopped instance.

Detach the root volume from the stopped lost instance

  1. On the Description tab click the name of the root device
  2.  In the popup click the EBS ID
  3. Make a note of the volume ID,
  4. Click the Actions button and select Detach Volume.

Attach the volume to the new instance

  1. On the same, detached root volume page, click the Actions button and select Attach Volume,
  2. Search for the new instance by Instance ID and enter a name for the device
  3. On the Description tab of the new instance, the second drive appears,

Assign a drive letter to the attached drive

  1. Log into the new instance,
  2. On the toolbar click the Server Manager icon,
  3. In the Tools menu select Computer Management,
  4. On the left side select Disk Management,
  5. Right-click the second disk and select Online,
  6. The partitions of the attached volume automatically get the drive letters. The primary partition received the letter E:
  7. The drives show up in Windows Explorer too.

Create a new server image for a RightScale server template

The RightScale server templates publish server images to launch. It is advisable to create your own server image because the cloud providers can remove their published images anytime. If you generate your own image, you control the lifecycle of those.

Create your own server image

  1. Use Packer to create a new server image.
    1. Install RightLink.
      1. On Windows
            1. Create a PowerShell script and save it as install-rightlink.ps1
              $wc = New-Object System.Net.Webclient
              $wc.DownloadFile("https://rightlink.rightscale.com/rll/10/rightlink.install.ps1",
                 "$pwd\rightlink.install.ps1")
              Powershell -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted -File rightlink.install.ps1
            2. Execute it from the Packer template
              "provisioners": [
                {
                  "type": "powershell",
                  "pause_before":"10s",
                  "scripts": [
                  "install-rightlink.ps1"
                  ]
                }
              ]
    2. For more information see “Create Custom Images with RightLink” at  http://docs.rightscale.com/rl10/getting_started.html
  2. Make the image public, so RightScale can see it
    1. Open the AWS console
    2. On the EC2 Dashboard select AMIs
    3. Find the image by AMI resource ID
    4. On the Permission tab click the Edit button
    5. Keep the image private, but share it with the AWs account you create the server template in.

Attach the image to your RightScale server template

Make sure the image is visible in RightScale.

It can take 30 minutes for the new image to appear in the list.

  1. Open the RightScale Cloud Management console
  2. In the upper right corner select the account you want to work in,
  3. In the Clouds menu find the region where you created the image and click the Images link
  4. Search for the image

If you have an existing MultiCloud image and want to update the server image in it

  1. In the Design menu select the MultiCloud Images link
  2. Find the existing image by name
  3. Click the name of the image to open it
  4. On the Clouds tab select region, you are working in and click the pencil icon
  5. Click the Edit Image button
  6. Type a part of the name of the new server image you have just created to find it
  7. Click the name of the image to select it
  8. Click the Save button to add it to the MultiCloud image
  9. Click the Update button to save the MultiCloud image

Test the new MultiColud Image

Set the MultiCloud image version in the Server Template

Test the new MultiCloud image by TEMPORARILY using the HEAD revision of the Server Template and the MultiCloud image

To test the new image TEMPORARILY select the HEAD revision of the MultiCloud image to be used by the Server Template

  1. In the Design menu select the ServerTemplates link
  2. Find your Server Template
  3. Click the name of the template to open the info page
  4. Select the HEAD revision of the Server Template
  5. On the Images tab click the pencil to set the revision of the MultiCloud image to use
  6. TEMPORARILY select the HEAD revision for the MultiCloud Image and click the green check mark to save the selection.

In your CAT file set revision 0 to use the HEAD revision of the Server Template

Launch a new server using Self Service with the HEAD revision of the Server Template


Create the new version of the MultiCloud Image

When you have successfully tested the new MultiCloud Image create a new version of it.

  1. Find your MultiCloud Image in Desing, MultiCloud Images
  2. Click the Commit button and enter a description for the change

Create the new version of the Server Template

Save a new version of the Server Template

  1. Find your Server Template in Design, ServerTemplates
  2. Click the Commit button

Publish the Server Template

  1. Select the last revision and click the Publish to MultiCloud Marketplace button
  2. Keep it private
  3. Select the account group to share with and click the DESCRIPTIONS button
  4. Click the PREVIEW button
  5. Click the PUBLISH button

Import the Server Image to the other accounts you use

To be able to use the new version of the Server Image switch to the other accounts and import the template

  1. In the Design menu under MultiCloud Marketplace select the ServerTemplates link
  2. Enter a portion of the Server Template name in the Keyword box and click the GO button
  3. Click the name of the template
  4. Click the Import button

If you want to use a new MultiCloud image in the Server Template

To create a new MultiCloud image

 

Add the new MultiCloud image to the server template

  1. Open the RightScale Cloud Management console
  2. In the Design menu select ServerTemplates
  3. Find your server template
  4. On the Images tab click the Add MultiCloud Image button

amazon-ebs: Error waiting for SSH: ssh: handshake failed: ssh: unable to authenticate, attempted methods [none publickey], no supported methods remain

When you launch a Linux AWS EC2 instance with Terraform or create a Linux AWS image with Packer, one of the following errors are displayed:

amazon-ebs: Error waiting for SSH: ssh: handshake failed: ssh: unable to authenticate, attempted methods [none publickey], no supported methods remain

aws_instance.default: 1 error(s) occurred:
* ssh: handshake failed: ssh: unable to authenticate, attempted methods [none publickey], no supported methods remain

Possible causes

Incorrect username

In the Packer template the “ssh_username”, in the Terraform script the “user” attribute contains the username to connect to the instance. It is important to use the correct username for each operating system. For the list of correct usernames for each operating system, see Create a server image with Packer

Wrong SSH key

Make sure you use the correct SSH key to connect to the instance. In the Terraform file, the “key_name”  attribute of the “aws_instance resource” specifies the SSH key to launch the instance with, and the “private_key” attribute of the “connection” contains the key itself as a string.

 

Splunk App for AWS

To collect data from AWS install the Splunk App for AWS plugin.

The app currently can collect information from

  • AWS Config,
  • Config Rules,
  • CloudTrail,
  • Inspector,
  • CloudWatch,
  • CloudWatch Logs,
  • Billing,
  • S3,
  • Kinesis,
  • Metadata.

New data source

To set up a new data source, click the Set up button

Already set up data source

To add a new input to the data source, click the New Input button

To view the list of existing inputs, click the link in the section

To view the settings of an existing input, click the name of the input, to add a new input, click the Add Input button. There is no way to edit the settings of existing inputs, to make changes, create a new input. There is also no method to disable an existing input, to stop the data collection, delete the input in the Action column.

S3

To read and process files from S3, select the S3 data source.

To select the Source Type click the Source Type field. If the source type is in the list, select it.

To add a source type, not in the list, enter the name into the text box, and click the generated link under the text box.

To collect the data more frequently than the default 30-minute interval, click the Advanced Settings link and enter the interval in seconds.

 

The specified Security Group and Parameter Group are not set in the RDS instance

If the Terraform apply execution times out during the RDS instance creation, the specified Security Group and Parameter Group is not set in the RDS instance.

The solution is to set the timeout in the aws_db_instance resource. When a multi-az RDS instance is launched from a snapshot, the process can take more than 55 minutes. The default value is 40 minutes.

resource "aws_db_instance" "default" {
...
  timeouts {
    create = "120m"
    delete = "120m"
  }
...
}

SQL Server AWS RDS instance ALARM FreeableMemory <=... MB

The SQL database servers use the available memory for caching to speed up the database operation. If we do not restrict the SQL database server memory usage, the operating system will not have enough memory to run. This setting is also necessary for an AWS RDS instance, otherwise, you will get the alert

ALARM FreeableMemory <=… MB

In AWS we can specify the maximum SQL server memory dynamically, so every RDS instance type will leave enough memory for the operating system regardless of the size of the available memory size. in this example, we will leave 1.5 GB (1536 MB) memory for the operating system so the default 1024 MB free memory alarm will not sound.

DBInstanceClassMemory returns the total memory size in bytes, so we need to convert the value to MB, to be able to set the value of “max server memory (mb)” to the correct number.

If you use Terraform to create your RDS instance, create a script with the aws_db_parameter_group resource to create a Parameter Group in your AWS account. You need to execute it once, as all RDS instances will use the same group.

resource "aws_db_parameter_group" "default" {

  name = "max-server-memory"
  family = "sqlserver-se-12.0"
  description = "DBInstanceClassMemory"

  parameter {
    name = "custom-sqlserver-se-12-0"
    value = "SUM({DBInstanceClassMemory/1048576},-1536)"
    apply_method = "immediate"
  }
}

In the RDS instance creation script assign the Parameter Group to the RDS instance and increase the timeout of the create and delete operations to make sure Terraform waits during the creation and deletion process.

resource "aws_db_instance" "default" {
...
  # Add the Max Server Memory parameter group to the instance
  parameter_group_name = "custom-sqlserver-se-12-0"
...
  timeouts {
    create = "120m"
    delete = "120m"
  }
...
}

 

 

 

Terraform provider.aws: no suitable version installed

The new versions of Terraform do not contain all plugins after the application installation. When you try to access a provider the first time, Terraform may not be able to communicate with it.

* provider.aws: no suitable version installed
version requirements: “(any version)”
versions installed: none

To download the necessary plugins, initialize the Terraform script directory

terraform init

The command will instruct Terraform to get all referenced modules and download all necessary plugins.