Install missing commands on Linux distributions

On some lean systems, mostly in Docker containers, some important commands are not readily available. The table below shows the command to install them.

To get the name of the Linux distribution execute

cat /etc/os-release

To find the package that contains the command, install apt-file

sudo apt-get install apt-file

Update the file package mapping database

sudo apt-file update

Search for the command at the end of the path

apt-file search --regexp '/MY_COMMAND$'

Select the package that contains the command in the standard path (/usr/bin/)

To get more information on the package

apt-cache show MY_PACKAGE

Application install commands

ApplicationRHEL, CentOSUbuntu, Debian
free, kill, pkill,
pgrep, pmap,
ps, pwdx, skill,
slabtop, snice,
sysctl, tload,
top, uptime,
vmstat, w, watch
apt-get install procps

The advancement of computer programming and personal computer technology

If you really know one programming language, you can learn others too. The most important part is to understand the concept of computer programming. All languages are built on similar type of instructions, some of them require a semicolon at the end of the line, others don’t. Some of them use curly braces {} to group instructions, others use indentation.

All of them allow you to make decisions, usually with the keyword IF, assign values to variables with =, read the keyboard, write to the screen, read and write the disk, and the network. Loop through items with FOR, FOREACH, and WHILE, address array elements with [0..]. You only have to learn a few English words and the syntax to use them.

The internet, and especially Stack Overflow is a great resource to find sample code that does what you need. Avoid assembling your program by copy pasting code from the internet. Try to understand the examples, and write your own lines to be able to really understand and maintain it.

The list below shows the advancement of personal computer technology. I have added the usual hardware specifications, the most popular operating systems, and important programming languages. The dates are not when the technology was announced, but when the average user started to use it.


IBM Mainframe, magnetic tape and large format magnetic disk storage

  • Fortran

Homemade personal computer with no permanent storage

  • Basic

“Midrange” computer (16 KB solid state or magnetic-core RAM, large format magnetic disk storage )

  • Basic


ZX 81 (3.25 MHz processor, first 1 KB, later 16 KB RAM, compact audio cassette storage)

ZX Spectrum (3.5 MHz processor, 16 KB RAM, compact audio cassette storage)

Commodore 64 (1 MHz processor, 64 KB RAM, 5.4″ floppy disk)

  • Basic for data processing
  • Simon Basic for graphical user interface

IBM PC( 4.7 MHz processor, first 128 KB, later 256 KB RAM, 5.4″ floppy disk, later 10 or 20 MB 5.4″ hard drive)


  • dBase
  • Clipper
  • FoxPro


IBM XT ( 4.7-12 MHz processor, 16 MB RAM)


  • Lotus 123 spreadsheet for engineering calculations
  • LISP for AutoCAD menus


IBM 386 ( 40 MHz processor, 256 MB RAM)

DOS, Windows 3.1

  • FoxPro
  • Visual FoxPro
  • Visual Basic
  • SQL


IBM clone( 40 MHz processor, 256 MB RAM)

Windows 95

  • PowerBuilder
  • Jaguar for web application server
  • ASP for web UI
  • SQL databases


IBM clone ( 150 MHz processor, 512 MB RAM)

Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000

  • ASP for web UI
  • Visual Basic
  • SQL databases

Linux Debian

  • Bash


( 1 GHz processor, first 1 GB, later 4 GB RAM)

Windows Server 2003

  • C#
  • C++
  • Java
  • SQL databases


( 1 GHz processor, first 4 G, later 32 GB RAM)

Windows Server 2008


Windows 7 laptop (2 GHz processor, 6 GB RAM, 500 GB HD)

Windows Server 2012 R2 virtual machines in the cloud ( 2 GHz processor, 4 – 32 GB RAM)

  • PowerShell

Linux RedHat 7 ( virtual machines in the cloud 2 GHz processor, 4 – 32 GB RAM)

  • Bash

MacBook Pro laptop (2.5 GHz i7 processor, 16 GB RAM, 1TB SSD storage)

  • Packer
  • Terraform
  • Ruby
  • PowerShell ( on Windows 10 virtual machine )
  • Chef
  • ServerSpec
  • InSpec
  • Chocolatey


MacBook Pro (5 GHz i9 processor, 32 GB RAM, 1TB SSD storage)

  • Docker
  • Kubernetes
  • Golang

Install Windows 10 from a USB drive

Modern computers don’t have DVD drives anymore. To install Windows 10 on a new system you need to place the Windows 10 installation media on a bootable USB drive. To prepare the bootable USB drive you need a working computer with Windows 10.

Microsoft SQL Server clients

To connect to an MSSQL database

on Macintosh

on Windows

Connect the Portainer Server to an existing Portainer Agent

With Portainer we can monitor multiple Docker Swarms from one Portainer Server. To connect an existing Portainer server to an agent

Configure the Agent

  • For security reasons, by default, the Portainer Agent only accepts connection from the first Portainer Server it encounters. To enable the Portainer Agent to connect to multiple Portainer Servers, add the AGENT_SECRET environment variable to the docker-compose.yml file of the Agent. This is necessary if you launch a Portainer Server on the Docker host and connect to the local Agent to test it. Without specifying the AGENT_SECRET, another Portainer Server cannot connect to the same agent.
  • Publish the Agent port on the host network
      # REQUIRED: Should be equal to the service name prefixed by "tasks." when
      # deployed inside an overlay network
      AGENT_CLUSTER_ADDR: tasks.agent
      # AGENT_PORT: 9001
      # LOG_LEVEL: debug
      AGENT_SECRET: my_secret_token
      - target: 9001
        published: 9001
        protocol: tcp
        mode: host

Configure the Server

  • Add the AGENT_SECRET environment variable to the docker-compose.yml file of the Server
      AGENT_SECRET: my_secret_token

Add the endpoint to the Portainer Server

  • Log into the Portainer Server
  • Navigate to the Endpoints page
  • Click the Add Endpoint button
  • Select the Agent endpoint type
  • Enter the IP address and the port number ( by default 9001 ) of the Portainer Agent

Portainer troubleshooting

The Portainer server restarts every 5 minutes before the admin account is created

When the Portainer server starts, waits 5 minutes for a user to create the admin account. If no account created in the first 5 minutes, the server stops with error code 1, message:

No administrator account was created after 5 min. Shutting down the Portainer instance for security reasons.

To keep the Portainer server running, with your web browser navigate to the web UI on port 9000 and enter a password for the admin account.